Class GOV3Function<T>
 All Implemented Interfaces:
Function<T,
,Long> Object2LongFunction<T>
,Size64
,Serializable
,Function<T,
,Long> ToLongFunction<T>
Instances of this class store a function from keys to values. Keys are provided by an
iterable object (whose iterators must return elements in a consistent
order), whereas values are provided by a LongIterable
. If you do not specify values, each
key will be assigned its rank (e.g., its position in iteration order starting from zero).
For convenience, this class provides a main method that reads from standard input a (possibly
gzip
'd) sequence of newlineseparated strings, and writes a serialised function
mapping each element of the list to its position, or to a given list of values.
Signing
Optionally, it is possible to sign a
GOV3Function
. Signing is possible if no list of values
has been specified (otherwise, there is no way to associate a key with its signature). A
wbit signature will be associated with each key, so that getLong(Object)
will return a default return value (by default, 1) on strings
that are not in the original key set. As usual, false positives are possible with probability
2^{w}.
If you're not interested in the rank of a key, but just to know whether the key was in the original set, you can turn the function into an approximate dictionary. In this case, the value associated by the function with a key is exactly its signature, which means that the only space used by the function is that occupied by signatures: this is one of the fastest and most compact way of storing a static approximate dictionary. In this case, the only returned value is one, and the default return value is set to zero.
Building a function
This class provides a great amount of flexibility when creating a new function; such flexibility is exposed through the builder. To exploit the various possibilities, you must understand some details of the construction.
In a first phase, we build a BucketedHashStore
containing hashes of the keys. By default,
the store will associate each hash with the rank of the key. If you
specify values, the store will associate with each
hash the corresponding value.
However, if you further require an indirect construction the
store will associate again each hash with the rank of the corresponding key, and access randomly
the values (which must be either a LongList
or a LongBigList
). Indirect
construction is useful only in complex, multilayer hashes (such as an
LcpMonotoneMinimalPerfectHashFunction
) in which we want to reuse a checked
BucketedHashStore
. Storing values in the BucketedHashStore
is extremely scalable
because the values must just be a LongIterable
that will be scanned sequentially during
the store construction. On the other hand, if you have already a store that associates ordinal
positions, and you want to build a new function for which a LongList
or
LongBigList
of values needs little space (e.g., because it is described implicitly), you
can opt for an indirect construction using the already built
store.
Note that if you specify a store it will be used before building a new one (possibly because of a
DuplicateException
), with
obvious benefits in terms of performance. If the store is not checked, and a
DuplicateException
is thrown,
the constructor will try to rebuild the store, but this requires, of course, that the keys, and
possibly the values, are available. Note that it is your responsibility to pass a correct store.
Multithreading
This implementation is multithreaded: each bucket returned by the BucketedHashStore
is
processed independently. By default, this class uses Runtime.availableProcessors()
parallel threads, but by default no more than 4. If you wish to set a specific number of threads,
you can do so through the system property "it.unimi.dsi.sux4j.mph.threads".
Implementation Details
The detail of the data structure can be found in “Fast Scalable Construction of (Minimal
Perfect Hash) Functions”, by Marco Genuzio, Giuseppe Ottaviano and Sebastiano Vigna,
15th International Symposium on Experimental Algorithms — SEA 2016, Lecture Notes in
Computer Science, Springer, 2016. We generate a random 3regular linear system on
F_{2}, where the known term of the kth equation is the output value
for the kth key. Then, we solve it and store the
solution. Since the system must have ≈10% more variables than equations to be solvable, an
rbit GOV3Function
on n keys requires 1.1rn bits.
Optionally, you may require a compacted function, that
is, a function storing nonzero values in a separate array and using a ranked
marker array to record the positions of nonzero values. In this case, the function requires just
(1.1 + r)n bits (plus the bits that are necessary for the ranking structure; the current implementation uses Rank16
), but has slightly slower
lookups.
 Since:
 4.0.0
 Author:
 Sebastiano Vigna
 See Also:

Nested Class Summary

Field Summary
Modifier and TypeFieldDescriptionstatic final int
The expected bucket size.static double
The ratio between variables and equations.protected final LongBigList
The final magick—the list of values that define the output of the function.protected final long
The seed used to generate the initial signature.protected final long
The number of variables.protected final LongArrayBitVector
protected final long
The number of keys.static final String
The system property used to set the number of parallel threads.protected final long[]
A long containing the start offset of each bucket in the lower 56 bits, and the local seed of each bucket in the upper 8 bits.protected final Rank16
The ranking structure onmarker
.protected final long
The mask to compare signatures, or zero for no signatures.protected final LongBigList
The signatures.protected final TransformationStrategy<? super T>
The transformation strategy to turn objects of typeT
into bit vectors.protected final int
The data width.Fields inherited from class it.unimi.dsi.fastutil.objects.AbstractObject2LongFunction
defRetValue

Constructor Summary
ModifierConstructorDescriptionprotected
GOV3Function
(Iterable<? extends T> keys, TransformationStrategy<? super T> transform, int signatureWidth, LongIterable values, int dataWidth, boolean compacted, File tempDir, BucketedHashStore<T> bucketedHashStore, boolean indirect) Creates a new function for the given keys and values. 
Method Summary
Modifier and TypeMethodDescriptionboolean
void
long
long
getLongBySignature
(long[] signature) Lowlevel access to the output of this function.static void
long
numBits()
Returns the number of bits used by this structure.int
size()
Deprecated.long
size64()
Returns the number of keys in the function domain.Methods inherited from class it.unimi.dsi.fastutil.objects.AbstractObject2LongFunction
defaultReturnValue, defaultReturnValue
Methods inherited from class java.lang.Object
clone, equals, finalize, getClass, hashCode, notify, notifyAll, toString, wait, wait, wait
Methods inherited from interface it.unimi.dsi.fastutil.objects.Object2LongFunction
andThen, andThenByte, andThenChar, andThenDouble, andThenFloat, andThenInt, andThenLong, andThenObject, andThenReference, andThenShort, applyAsLong, composeByte, composeChar, composeDouble, composeFloat, composeInt, composeLong, composeObject, composeReference, composeShort, get, getOrDefault, getOrDefault, put, put, remove, removeLong

Field Details

C
public static double CThe ratio between variables and equations. 
NUMBER_OF_THREADS_PROPERTY
The system property used to set the number of parallel threads. See Also:

BUCKET_SIZE
public static final int BUCKET_SIZEThe expected bucket size. See Also:

n
protected final long nThe number of keys. 
m
protected final long mThe number of variables. 
width
protected final int widthThe data width. 
globalSeed
protected final long globalSeedThe seed used to generate the initial signature. 
offsetAndSeed
protected final long[] offsetAndSeedA long containing the start offset of each bucket in the lower 56 bits, and the local seed of each bucket in the upper 8 bits. 
data
The final magick—the list of values that define the output of the function. 
marker

rank
The ranking structure onmarker
. 
transform
The transformation strategy to turn objects of typeT
into bit vectors. 
signatureMask
protected final long signatureMaskThe mask to compare signatures, or zero for no signatures. 
signatures
The signatures.


Constructor Details

GOV3Function
protected GOV3Function(Iterable<? extends T> keys, TransformationStrategy<? super T> transform, int signatureWidth, LongIterable values, int dataWidth, boolean compacted, File tempDir, BucketedHashStore<T> bucketedHashStore, boolean indirect) throws IOException Creates a new function for the given keys and values. Parameters:
keys
 the keys in the domain of the function, ornull
.transform
 a transformation strategy for the keys.signatureWidth
 a positive number for a signature width, 0 for no signature, a negative value for a selfsigned function; if nonzero,values
must benull
andwidth
must be 1.values
 values to be assigned to each element, in the same order of the iterator returned bykeys
; ifnull
, the assigned value will the ordinal number of each element.dataWidth
 the bit width of thevalues
, or 1 ifvalues
isnull
.compacted
 if true, the coefficients will be compacted.tempDir
 a temporary directory for the store files, ornull
for the standard temporary directory.bucketedHashStore
 a bucketed hash store containing the keys associated with their ranks (if there are no values, orindirect
is true) or values, ornull
; the store can be unchecked, but in this casekeys
andtransform
must be nonnull
.indirect
 if true,bucketedHashStore
contains ordinal positions, andvalues
is aLongIterable
that must be accessed to retrieve the actual values. Throws:
IOException


Method Details

getLong
 Specified by:
getLong
in interfaceObject2LongFunction<T>

getLongBySignature
public long getLongBySignature(long[] signature) Lowlevel access to the output of this function.This method makes it possible to build several kind of functions on the same
BucketedHashStore
and then retrieve the resulting values by generating a single signature. The methodTwoStepsGOV3Function.getLong(Object)
is a good example of this technique. Parameters:
signature
 a signature generated as documented inBucketedHashStore
. Returns:
 the output of the function.

size64
public long size64()Returns the number of keys in the function domain. 
size
Deprecated. 
numBits
public long numBits()Returns the number of bits used by this structure. Returns:
 the number of bits used by this structure.

containsKey
 Specified by:
containsKey
in interfaceFunction<T,
Long>

dump
 Throws:
IOException

main
